Health Care Work Force

VI. Key Issues: Financing and Delivery >> G. Health Care Delivery System >> Health Care Work Force


  • Allopathic physicians (MD)
  • Osteopathic physicians (DO)
  • Dentists (DDS/DDM)
  • Podiatrists
  • Chiropractors
  • Optometrists

Other Medical Providers

Mid-Level Practitioners

  • Physician assistants (PA)
  • Advanced practice nurses (APN)
    • Nurse practitioners (NP)
    • Clinical nurse specialists (CNS)
    • Nurse midwife (NMW)
    • Certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNA)

Nursing Practice

  • Registered nurses (RNs)
  • Licensed practical nurses (LPNs)
  • Licensed vocational nurses (LVNs)
  • Unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)

Allied Health Professionals

  • Pharmacists
  • Therapists
  • Other

Dental Care Industry

Behavioral Health Care Industry

Complementary/Alternative Medicine

  • Naturopathic physicians
  • Chiropractors
  • Homeopaths
  • Acupuncturists
  • Other


  • Health Professionals Education (Health Affairs topic page)
  • Workforce Issues (Health Affairs topics page)
  • Altarum InstituteHealth Workforce Modeling and Analysis. Spanning 3 decades, Altarum has conducted over 40 health workforce studies for the federal government, states, and professional societies. Center researchers are national experts in the development and application of models of health workforce supply and requirements. We have studied phy­sicians, nurses, pharmacists, dentists, physical thera­pists, audiologists, and speech-language pathologists. Altarum has supported the federal Health Resources and Services Administration, and workforce planning efforts in California, Michigan, New York, New Jersey, Utah, and Colorado.

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