HIV/AIDS Prevention

Key Questions (by Molly Hall and Noah Swertloff)

What Populations Face Increased Risk for HIV Infection?

There are several factors that may increase an individual’s risk for contracting HIV, including, behavior and demographics. WebMD provides a topic summary on certain behaviors that increase the risk of HIV infection. An additional study reported by Kaiser examines the link between behavior, sexually transmitted infections and HIV prevalence. Examples of behaviors that lead to an increased likelihood of contracting HIV include sex between men, smoking, and the lack of circumcision. A policy brief issued by UNAIDS provides an in depth report on the epidemic affecting the men having sex with men demographic. In a news article reported by HealthDay, the correlation between smoking and HIV prevalence is examined. The CDC also provides a report on the risk factors and implications associated with male circumcision.

Demographic studies show that there are correlations between population groups and the risk of contracting HIV. These populations are divided by age, race, sex, sexual orientation and location. The CDC has compiled a data table of AIDS cases divided among the aforementioned populations, and additionally has put together a comprehensive report, including additional maps, data tables and charts. Provided in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, this table illustrates the percentage of the population that faces increased risk of HIV contraction. Specifically examining one of these groups, the UNAIDS published a report on the current epidemic affecting young people.

What HIV Prevention Strategies are Currently Being Put Into Place?

Varying programs are used to facilitate the spread of HIV. The CDC provides a site that lists many of the current Programs in Brief and provides an extended explanation of the specific strategies. The CDC also provides a list of Prevention guidelines (link not found 2/22/2007) for specific groups. WebMD also offers an article that outlines specifically 6 ways individuals can prevent the transmission of HIV. Published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, a table of Prevention Interventions outlines many of the characteristics of different programs.

Many of the programs currently in place are advocated for specific groups. The Global HIV Prevention Working Group published a fact sheet of only Proven Strategies that reduce HIV infections in many of these groups. Another article outlines a strategy characterized by the ABC’s that targets groups at risk from heterosexual transmission. Additionally, Yahoo Health provides access to an article reporting on strategies focused on only Hispanic Teens and a map, provided by the Kaiser Family Foundation, illustrates many of the strategies directed at Drug users (link not found 2/22/2007).

How are HIV Prevention Programs Funded?

The US Government devotes millions of dollars to fund varying AIDS programs. The brief issued by the Kaiser Family Foundation, Trends in Funding, provides an analysis of the trends in US federal funding for HIV/AIDS, specifically examining the portion spent for prevention. Supplementary to this brief, the Kaiser Family Foundation also compiled a pack of Charts of Trends (link not found 2/22/2007) that illustrate many of these same findings in graphical form. The Global Prevention Working Group provided an analysis of the current funding trends in their report on The Funding Gap and examined the effectiveness of the current distribution of finances. The National AIDS Fund site also provides information on their cause, raising money to reduce the incidence of HIV, and their strategies and work to fund programs. An article on potential Democratic funding reports new possibilities for increased funding for specific groups. Additionally an article provided by Google Health, Funds Needed, offers a perspective on the importance and effects of sufficient funding and the direction the future of financing may need to head in.

What is on the Forefront of HIV Prevention?

There are numerous new approaches to and predictions for the future of HIV prevention. The Global Prevention Working Group outlines and examines many of these New Approaches in depth in their August 2006 report. The CDC also provides a presentation that lists many of their Revised Recommendations for HIV testing that will be implemented in healthcare settings. The also provide a What’s New page that lists links to the most up-to-date publications and announcements surrounding HIV prevention.

The Kaiser Family Foundation put out two very useful videocasts relating to possible future ahead, both problems and solutions. A videocast on Controversies explored the possible problems that new prevention strategies are resulting in while the other videocast discussed the prevention strategies in the making, specifically the Road to Effective Vaccines. Furthering the discussion of future problems and outlining future actions, an article from MSN News examined Future consequences of HIV.

Links

  • HIV/AIDS (Health Affairs topics page)
  • mentalhealthAIDS (quarterly biopsychosocial research update on HIV and mental health sponsored by the Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA, an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)