COI by Condition

Home Page >> V. Key Health Policy Issues >> A. Burden of Illness >>Cost-of-Illness (COI)>>COI by Condition (last updated 12.11.15)

 

All Diseases

  • Altarum Institute. Spending by Medical Condition. While the NHEA track expenditures by type of ser­vice and source of funds, they exclude spending by medical condition. Yet such information is critical to understanding the value of expenditures, and where to direct efforts to improve health and control costs. In Health Affairs (February 2009), Altarum reported annual estimates from 1996 through 2005 for 32 all-inclusive and mutually exclusive conditions. Mental disorders and heart conditions led the list. Spend­ing growth rates were lowest for lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, coronary heart disease, and stroke, perhaps reflecting benefits of prevention. Research on the impact of disease-specific prevalence on spending growth appears in the September 2011 Health Affairs.
  • Research Triangle Institute. Cost-of-Illness Summaries for Selected Conditions. (January 2006). (pdf). This is a tabular compilation of COI estimates for a large number of diseases, based on the studies reviewed in the report below, updated to 2004 dollars, with a breakdown of direct, indirect and intangible losses, along with other selected details about characteristics of each study.
  • Research Triangle Institute. Reviews of Current Cost-of-Illness Studies. (January 2006). (pdf). This is a 300+ page compilation of abstracted COI studies using a common template for reporting on methods and sources. The compilation is intended to update the NIH 2000 report and excludes all studies from that report except in instances where no more recent study could be found for a particular disease.
  • Dorothy P. Rice, Thomas A. Hodgson and Andrea N. Kopstein. “The Economic Costs of Illness: A Replication and Update.” Health Care Financing Review 7, No. 1 (Fall 1985): 61-80.
  • “The Relation Between Funding by the National Institutes of Health and the Burden of Disease” (New England Journal of Medicine, 6/17/99)

Broad Condition Categories

Injuries

  • Dorothy P. Rice, E.J. McKenzie and Associates.  Cost of Injury in the United States: A Report to Congress.  San Francisco and Baltimore Injury Prevention Center, Johns Hopkins University, 1989, cited in Jeffrey W. Runge. “The Cost of Injury” Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 11, No. 1 (February 1993): 241-253.

Mental Illness

  • Facts and Economic Costs (National Mental Health Association)
  • Dorothy P. Rice, Sander Kelman, Leonard S. Miller, Sarah Dunmeyer. The Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse and Mental Illness: 1985. Report submitted to Office of Financing and Coverage Policy of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. San Francisco: Institute for Health and Aging, University of California, 1990.

Musculoskeletal Conditions

  • A. Praemer, S. Furner, and D.P. Rice.  Section 5: “Costs of Musculoskeletal Conditions.”  Musculoskeletal Conditions in the United States.  American Academyof Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1992.

Senile Dementia

  • Lien-Fu Huang, William S. Cartwright, and Teh-Wei Hu. “The Economic Cost of Senile Dementia in the United Sates, 1985” Public Health Reports 103, No. 1 (January-February 1988): 3-7.

Violent Crime (rape, robbery, assault, arson and murder)

  • Violence Costs (Pacific Center for Violence Prevention)
  • Ted R. Miller, M.A. Cohen and S. B. Rossman, Victim Costs of Violent Crime and Resulting Injuries.  Health Affairs 12(4): 195-197.

Adverse Events

  • Eric J Thomas; David M Studdert; Joseph P Newhouse; Brett I W Zbar; et al. Costs of medical injuries in Utah and Colorado. Inquiry Fall 1999; 36 (3): 255-264.

Specific Illnesses/Conditions

Figures in parentheses show approximate ranking of illnesses according to annual costs in the U.S. as of 2000, based on unpublished estimates by Christopher J. Conover. See Annual Cost of Illness and Injury, Most Costly Health Conditions in U.S. (2000).

AIDS (#1)

  • Fred Hellinger. “Forecasts of the Costs of Medical Care for Persons with HIV: 1992-1995.” Inquiry (Fall, 1992).
  • Mark S. Thompson and Heidi J. Meyer, “The Cost of AIDS: Alternative Methodological Approaches,” in Lee Sechrest, Howard Freeman and Albert Mulley, eds., Health Services Research Methodology: A Focus on AIDS.  National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment,September 1989: 95-106.

Alcoholism (#2)

  • Dorothy P. Rice, Sander Kelman, Leonard S. Miller, Sarah Dunmeyer. The Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse and Mental Illness: 1985. Report submitted to Office of Financing and Coverage Policy of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. San Francisco: Institute for Health and Aging, University of California, 1990.
  • CDC reports excessive alcohol consumption cost the U.S. $224 billion in 2006.

Alzheimer’s (#3)

  • Richard L. Ernst and Joel W. Hay. “The US Economic and Social Costs of Alzheimer’s Disease Revisited.” American Journal of Public Health 84, No. 8 (August 1994): 1261-1264.

Arthritis (#4)

  • A. Praemer, S. Furner, and D.P. Rice.  Section 5: “Costs of Musculoskeletal Conditions.”  Musculoskeletal Conditions in the United States.  American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1992.

Autism

  • Leigh, J. P., & Du, J. (2015). Brief report: Forecasting the economic burden of autism in 2015 and 2025 in the united states. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,45(12), 4135-4139. doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2521-7.  Few US estimates of the economic burden of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are available and none provide estimates for 2015 and 2025. We forecast annual direct medical, direct non-medical, and productivity costs combined will be $268 billion (range $162-$367 billion; 0.884-2.009 % of GDP) for 2015 and $461 billion (range $276-$1011 billion; 0.982-3.600 % of GDP) for 2025. These 2015 figures are on a par with recent estimates for diabetes and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and exceed the costs of stroke and hypertension. If the prevalence of ASD continues to grow as it has in recent years, ASD costs will likely far exceed those of diabetes and ADHD by 2025.

Cancer, Reproductive (#11)

  • Nelson S. Hartunian, Charles N. Smart, Mark S. Thompson. “The Incidence and Economic Costs of Cancer, Motor Vehicle Injuries, Coronary Heart Disease, and Stroke: A Comparative Analysis” American Journal of Public Health 70, No. 12 (December 1980): 1249-1260.

Cancer, Respiratory (#14)

  • Nelson S. Hartunian, Charles N. Smart, Mark S. Thompson. “The Incidence and Economic Costs of Cancer, Motor Vehicle Injuries, Coronary Heart Disease, and Stroke: A Comparative Analysis” American Journal of Public Health 70, No. 12 (December 1980): 1249-1260.

Coronary Insufficiency (#20)

  • Nelson S. Hartunian, Charles N. Smart, Mark S. Thompson. “The Incidence and Economic Costs of Cancer, Motor Vehicle Injuries, Coronary Heart Disease, and Stroke: A Comparative Analysis” American Journal of Public Health 70, No. 12 (December 1980): 1249-1260.

Coronary Sudden Death (#18)

  • Nelson S. Hartunian, Charles N. Smart, Mark S. Thompson. “The Incidence and Economic Costs of Cancer, Motor Vehicle Injuries, Coronary Heart Disease, and Stroke: A Comparative Analysis” American Journal of Public Health 70, No. 12 (December 1980): 1249-1260.

Coronary Disease, All Other MI (#9)

  • Nelson S. Hartunian, Charles N. Smart, Mark S. Thompson. “The Incidence and Economic Costs of Cancer, Motor Vehicle Injuries, Coronary Heart Disease, and Stroke: A Comparative Analysis” American Journal of Public Health 70, No. 12 (December 1980): 1249-1260.

Depression (#7)

  • Paul E. Greenberg, Laura E. Stiglin, Stan N. Finkelstein and Ernst R. Berndt. “The Economic Burden of Depression in 1990” Journal of Clinical Psychology 54:11 (November 1993): 405-426.

Diabetes (#12)

  • “The Economic Costs of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus” Journal of the American Medical Association 262, No. 19 (November 17, 1989): 2708-2713.
  • Thomas J Songer, Lorraine Ettaro, and the Economics of Diabetes Project Pane. Studies on the Cost of Diabetes (1998). Summarizes the results of the direct costs of diabetes from 19 cost estimates for the years 1969-1997, adjusted to 1997 dollars using alternative price adjusters and accounting for rising diabetes prevalence during this period. This analysis shows a 6.5-fold difference in the 1997 medical-price-adjusted estimates for a single disease across studies that vary in the methods and sources of data used to calculate COI for diabetes.

Drug Abuse (#16)

  • Dorothy P. Rice, Sander Kelman, Leonard S. Miller, Sarah Dunmeyer. The Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse and Mental Illness: 1985. Report submitted to Office of Financing and Coverage Policy of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. San Francisco:Institute for Health and Aging, University of California, 1990.

End-Stage Renal Disease

  • Costs of ESRDWhen Part D costs are excluded, total Part A, B, and C Medicare expenditures were $434.5 billion in 2009, with the ESRD program accounting for 6.7 percent of this spending—a number consistent over many years. These expenditures cover the more than 571,000 patients in the Medicare ESRD population; costs for the non-Medicare population were an additional estimated $13.5 billion. Total ESRD costs in 2009 exceeded $80,000 per patient per year for those on hemodialysis, exceeded $60,000 for those on peritoneal dialysis and exceeded $25,000 for kidney transplant patients.

Falls (#5)

  • Dorothy P. Rice, E.J. McKenzie and Associates.  Cost of Injury in the United States: A Report to Congress.  San Francisco and Baltimore Injury Prevention Center, Johns Hopkins University, 1989, cited in Jeffrey W. Runge. “The Cost of Injury” Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 11, No. 1 (February 1993): 241-253.

Firearm Injuries (criminal and accidental)  (#13)

  • Wendy Max and Dorothy P. Rice. “Shooting in the Dark: Estimating the Cost of Firearm Injuries” Health Affairs 12, No. 4 (Winter 1993): 171-185.

Fractures, Hip (#19)

  • A. Praemer, S. Furner, and D.P. Rice.  Section 5: “Costs of Musculoskeletal Conditions.”  Musculoskeletal Conditions in the United States.  American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1992.

Fractures, Non-hip (#17)

  • A. Praemer, S. Furner, and D.P. Rice.  Section 5: “Costs of Musculoskeletal Conditions.”  Musculoskeletal Conditions in the United States. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1992.

Migraine Headaches (#23)

  • Gregory de Lissovoy and Stephanie S. Lazarus. “The Economic Cost of Migraine: Present State of Knowledge.” Neurology 44 (Suppl 4) June 1994: S56-S62.

Motor Vehicle Accidents (#6)

  • Nelson S. Hartunian, Charles N. Smart, Mark S. Thompson. “The Incidence and Economic Costs of Cancer, Motor Vehicle Injuries, Coronary Heart Disease, and Stroke: A Comparative Analysis” American Journal of Public Health 70, No. 12 (December 1980): 1249-1260.

Multiple Sclerosis (#22)

  • Kathryn Whetten-Goldstein, Frank A. Sloan, Larry B. Goldstein, Elizabeth D. Kulas. “A Comprehensive Assessment of the Cost of Multiple Sclerosis in the United States.” Multiple Sclerosis 4 (3) (1998).

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (#21)

  • Robert L. DuPont et al. Medical Interface. April 1995, cited in Medical Benefits June 15, 1995, p. 5.

Schizophrenia (#10)

  • Dorothy P. Rice and L.S. Miller “The Economic Burden of Schizophrenia” Paper presented at the Sixth Biennial Research Conference on the Economics of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, September 21-22, 1992, pp 1-17, cited in Agnes Rupp and Samuel J. Keith, “The Costs of Schizophrenia: Assessing the Burden.” Psychiatric Clinics ofNorth America 16, No. 2 (June 1993): 413-423. Daniel M. Huse, Gerry Oster, Alice R. Killen, Michael J. Lacey, Graham A. Colditz.

Stroke (#8)

  • David Matchar, The Cost of Stroke in the U.S.: National Stroke Association Press Conference, May 1994.
  • Mark S. Adelman.  National Survey of Stroke, Chapter 6: Economic Impact.  Stroke 12, Supplement 1, March-April 1981: 69-87.
  • Nelson S. Hartunian, Charles N. Smart, Mark S. Thompson. “The Incidence and Economic Costs of Cancer, Motor Vehicle Injuries, Coronary Heart Disease, and Stroke: A Comparative Analysis” American Journal of Public Health 70, No. 12 (December 1980): 1249-1260.

Urinary Incontinence (65+) (#15)

  • Teh-wei Hu. “The Economic Impact of Urinary Incontinence.” Clinics in Geriatric Medicine 2, No. 4 (November 1986): 673-687.

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