Quality of Life Measurement
- HealthEconomics.com has an extensive list of questionnaires and assessments used for measuring quality of life and health quality and conducting cost-effectiveness analysis.
- Self-rated health has been found to be a reliable predictor of mortality.
- Idler EL, Benyamini Y. Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. J Health Soc Behav. 1997;38(1):21-37. 25. We examine the growing number of studies of survey respondents’ global self-ratings of health as predictors of mortality in longitudinal studies of representative community samples. Twenty-seven studies in U.S. and international journals show impressively consistent findings. Global self-rated health is an independent predictor of mortality in nearly all of the studies, despite the inclusion of numerous specific health status indicators and other relevant covariates known to predict mortality. We summarize and review these studies, consider various interpretations which could account for the association, and suggest several approaches to the next stage of research in this field.
- Franks P, Gold MR, Fiscella K. Sociodemographics, self-rated health, and mortality in the US. Soc Sci Med. 2003;56: 2505-2514. Using data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey, a representative sample of US civilians, and their 5-year mortality, we examined the adjusted relationships among baseline self-reported health, derived from SF-20 subscales (health perceptions, physical function, role function and mental health) and sociodemographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, income and education) and subsequent mortality. Included were 21,363 persons aged 21 and over, with complete follow-up on 19,812. Physical function showed the greatest decline with age, whereas mental health increased slightly. Women reported lower health for all scales except role function. Greater income was associated with better health, least marked for mental health. Greater education was associated with better health, most marked for health perceptions. Compared with whites, blacks reported lower health, whereas Latinos reported higher health. Lower self-reported health predicted increased adjusted mortality. After adjustment for baseline self-rated health, the relationships between income and education and mortality were greatly attenuated, whereas the relationships between age, gender, race/ethnicity and mortality were not. Self-rated health exhibited more profound relationships with mortality in younger persons, those with more education, and whites. In conclusion, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and being black are associated with lower reported health status and higher mortality; women report lower health status but exhibit lower mortality; and Latinos report higher health status and exhibit lower mortality. The effects of SES on mortality are largely explained by their associations with self-rated health, whereas, the effects of gender and race/ethnicity on mortality appear to act through independent pathways. Because of these differential sociodemographic relationships caution is urged when using self-rated health measures in research, clinical, and policy settings.